Logic is critical thinking, analysing the facts, understanding. It is the Why.

The Figure

She is a warrior, prepared to attack or defend. She is the goddess Minerva who sprang fully formed from the head of Jupiter. She is reaching for the apple in the tree as she is always striving for clearer thinking, for higher knowledge.

She is not blinded by emotion, her feet are firmly planted.

The 6 Triangles on her dress represent the 6 qualifiers of Modal Logic.

A modal qualifies a statement.

There are 6 types:

Alethic: measure certainty, e.g. “possibly”, “contingently”, “necessarily true”

Deontic: consider ethical concepts, e.g. “obligatory”, “ought”, “forbidden”

Epistemic: deal with states of knowledge, e.g. “it is known that” or “unknown”

Doxastic: handle states of belief, e.g. “x thinks that”, “will always believe that”

Temporal: qualify in terms of time, e.g. “was true”, “will be true”

Probabilistic: degrees of likelihood, e.g. “probable”, “unlikely”